About Seashells

Terminology, anatomy, classification, etc.

Illustrations of Shell Features

Conchology vis-a-vis Malacology
The birth of malacology. When and how?

Counting Protoconch Whorls

Holotypes, new species, museum deposits.      A discussion from Conch-L.

Paucispiral vs Planktotrophic Protoconchs

Species, subspecies and forms.                           How do we measure speciation?

Terminology - Discussion of "Types", And, terms in species names & data slips


Websites with definitions of morphological features:

Paul Mikkelsen's Glossary of Malacological and Conchological Terms

Advanced glossary of molluscan terms (bivales & univalves)

Gastropoda Shell Form



Olsson, A. A. (1961). Mollusks of the tropical eastern Pacific, particularly from the southern half of the Panamic-Pacific faunal province (Panama to Peru). Panamic-Pacific Pelecypoda. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca. pg 419.

Mar 12, 2020.  Harry Lee comments:  "Considering the fact that the genus was introduced in a monograph treating the eastern Pacific fauna, it is somewhat ironic that presently (Huber, 2015: 288-289; 734-737; WoRMS, its six species live in the Indo-West Pacific as well as both sides of the Atlantic and not in the eastern Pacific (Panamic Province).

Huber, M., 2015. Compendium of Bivalves 2. A Full-Color Guide to the Remaining Seven Families. A Systematic Listing of 8'500 Bivalve Species and 10'500 Synonyms. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, Germany. 907 pp., incl. numerous color figs + CD-ROM. May."

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